NEW YORK (MainStreet)—
While President Obama has voted down the Keystone XL tar sands oil pipeline with great fanfare, Canadian politicians and institutions have been quietly blocking water pipes and diversion plans for decades.
As the pressure on Canada in the United States may increaseS.
With the recent drought in large electoral powers such as Texas and California, and throughout the job, entering the election year
Sun and bread basket in plain state.
and reuse may be more realistic ---politically --for the U. S.
Instead of relying on Canada's water exports, "said Timothy Heinmiller, associate professor of public policy and environmental politics at the University of Brok, Canada.
"Water exports have always been political.
The start of Canada, even the most correct-wing, business-
The friendly government is not engaged in the water export business.
In the few cases where the government considers or allows water to be exported, strong public protests have forced them to retreat.
Of course, saving water is the first and best defense against water shortages.
Drip irrigation with low flow
Flow fixing devices and smart water meters are becoming more and more common.
But as Peter Beland, North American editor of Global Water Intelligence, pointed out, "Every community has a turning point, which is often caused by sustained and severe drought.
"Historically, this is the driving force of the pipeline, and while experts suggest that the wave of the future should launch a purification plant, some politicians still stick to that mentality.
We live in a heroic era of plumbing and diversion.
Rome's plumbing builders will be shocked by the buildings on record.
Plans or ongoing crushing projects in Turkey, India and China.
Late Libyan dictator Colonel
Muamier Safi is in the Sahara with the great man.
The "Made River" is the world's largest underground water pipe network, connecting the Nubian underground sandstone aquifer system with farmland and the populous Mediterranean coast.
According to US media reportsS.
There are already millions of miles of water pipes and channels across the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. S.
And Canada, "40 laps around the Earth.
"These projects usually flow water within the country, not between countries.
Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh, but 20% of this precious resource is in the north of the great white.
Due to predictions from NASA, Cornell University and Columbia University, this wealth is closely linked to huge demand, which may be viewed with renewed urgencyshaping events.
Even in a less desperate situation in recent years, American leaders are talking about withdrawing from their resources, which makes Canadians uneasy.
2006, former United StatesS.
The ambassador to Canada, Paul Cellucci, called on Canada to treat water like any other export commodity.
In 2007, Bill Richardson, a Democratic presidential candidate and former New Mexico governor, suggested that the lower-level Great Lakes shared with Canada could be moved to the arid western states.
Senator McCain. R-Ariz. )
In his 2008 presidential campaign, he was widely quoted before the Canadian economic club, "[w]
Exports will be a decisive issue in the 21 st century, but they must be agreed by the people.
A spokesman for McCain told the Daily Mail that the statement was not part of McCain's remarks, but may have been said in a subsequent answer to a question.
Canada's reluctance to export water is just a deep-rooted North American free trade agreement that does not force Canada to export water, but it is difficult to close once the tap is voluntarily turned on.
The key difference is that water as a resource, in its natural state, serves as a good resource once action is taken to develop it.
"The North American Free Trade agreement contains provisions to prevent arbitrary export controls after international trade in commodities begins," Heinmiller said . ".
"So if Canada starts exporting water to NAFTA countries, the government of Canada can only implement export controls in case of emergency.
Moreover, even in an emergency, it can only implement controls proportional to its reduction in domestic water consumption.
He added that he was not aware of any test cases for this clause.
Some enthusiastic investors compare "blue gold" with oil, which also makes Canadians uneasy: export arrangements may create dependence on turning Canadian water into American WaterS.
National security concerns and reasons for intervention.
Canadians used to brag about their abundant water resources, but today they are more cautious.
The federal regulator Environment Canada has carefully pointed out that less than half of the country's water is renewable.
The rest is one.
Ice Age presents lingering in lakes, underground reservoirs and glaciers.
More than half of Canada's renewable water resources flow into the sea from the population center and the United States to the north. S. border.
Environmental economists point out that even if it is affordable to re-direct these flows, the rich estuary where rivers meet with oceans is too valuable to change at all.
If legal protections are relaxed, Canada could bleed for thousands of cuts.
"The Great Lakes, however, may witness a multiplication of small diversions, with a cumulative volume that could be equivalent to a large shift either internally or across borders," warned Fridrik LaSalle, a geographer at the University of Laval, Quebec: the future of Canadian water (
Columbia University Press, UK, 2003).
The Canadian ambassador to the United States feels hot. S.
Gary Doer told Canada
Com in 2014, freshwater issues between the United StatesS.
By contrast, Canada will soon make the Keystone XL pipeline "look stupid" for tensions ".
"I think five years from now, we will spend a lot of time on handing in and dealing with water," he told Canada . ".
A Department of the post-media network companyOr not.
In a different sense, the future may be very Canadian: a vote with a boring point of view.
Water war and amazing engineering
According to California water industry executives, these projects may capture the imagination of Hollywood science fiction film producers, but their taps are more likely to fade and reuse the water captured by Heinmiller's bland prescription
"Exotic ideas are not on the agenda," confirmed Jack Hawkes, executive director of the California Water Association, which represents investors.
A state-owned water company serving 6 million people in the state.
"On the other hand, the focus is on improving reliable sources of supply locally.
California suffered a severe drought for four years.
Canada and long-
The distance pipeline referred to in the policy resolution adopted by the Metropolitan Water Body Association (AMWA)
Erica Brown, director of sustainable development and climate projects at AMWA, noted in October.
An association representing the United States. S.
The public water supply system, which serves 0. 13 billion people, repeats the mantra of protection, dilution and reuse, urging the federal government to invest in these methods.
Some analysts are more acute.
"I think the idea of a pipeline from Canada or Alaska to California is ridiculous," said Neil berrand, a partner in Los Angeles --
Crowell, Weedon & Co, a brokerage and currency management company based in D. Crow. A. Davidson & Co.
"These proposals to get water through barges, balloons, pipes and pulling icebergs are ridiculous.
They have some feasibility, but when the cost of producing drinking water through seawater desalination has dropped sharply, they have not compared economically.
We have a very viable and practical solution for desalination.
"We are not short of water," added Berlant . ".
"The Earth has as much water as it did millions of years ago.
What we have is a shortage of cheap water because we have developed all the simple-to-tap sources.
According to EPA, there is only 0.
3% of fresh water can be found on the Earth's surface.
"The rest is harder to get to, or more cleaning is needed, but we're a lot ahead of three, five, or ten years ago," Berlant said, adding, as the cost of photovoltaic and natural gas decreases and energy efficiency increases, drinking water in our oceans may be "unlimited ".
"Modern desalination and wastewater reuse plants rely on reverse osmosis technology that forces water through membrane
The distillation has basically disappeared, except in-home setups.
Credible labs such as Lockheed Martin and the University of Texas at Austin have announced breakthrough technology, which has raised hopes, but they have yet to change their plans.
"In general, the water treatment industry is very conservative in absorbing disruptive technologies," observed Belan of the Global Water Intelligence Agency.
"The industry is conservative in general, but because of this, conservatives are largely seen as stable, albeit low
"Many publicly traded manufacturers and component developers of desalination plants are giants that have long been established, including Acciona, Dow, DuPont, Evoqua, GE, Pall Corp.
Veolia Environment and integrated water.
And water change --Traded Funds.
Part of the risk of rewarding conservatism in the water program is that there is no universal commodity pricing for water.
However, there is a standard unit: extending 1 feet of the depth on one acre of land, or "Acres-foot.
Berlant said the pricing of water was "quite complicated" due to the patching of the regulatory authorities, although Tonianne Pezzetti, a California Department of Water Resources Engineering, said the real problem was that construction and operating costs were too "local-specific ", price forecasts cannot be summarized.
Take Gaddafi's "The Eighth Wonder of the world" as an example.
An article on the 2011 Columbia University Water Center blog cited an unnamed analyst's estimate of the great man's water --
Making River "ten times cheaper than desalination", but 2003 of the University of London and Alfateh UniversityTripoli, Libya)
The study concluded that the cost of seawater desalination is four times that of seawater desalination.
This uncertainty does not prevent companies from proposing a series of more than a dozen desalination plants for the California coastal area.
No more attention than Boston.
The San Diego County-based Poseidon Water Company spent $1 billion on the Carlsbad desalination project.
The project, which will be the largest marine desalination plant in the Western Hemisphere, is expected to provide 50 million gallons of drinking water at $1,849 to $2,064 per acre per day by 2016
Feet in 2012, less than 30-year contract.
Additional system costs will make the total water price per acre between $2,014 and $2,257
Feet, or up to $7 a month for a family with a four-month water fee.
In the case of environmental litigation and the public's feasibility, cost-
Effectiveness and financing of the public
Carlsbad is seen as the industry leader.
California is also eliminating taboos for water reuse. -
Drinking water from the toilet to the faucet.
This method underestimates the price of desalination.
The Orange County Water Authority in California handles the sewer and pumps it back to the natural environment, and then finally brings it back to the drinking water treatment system.
The agency began mixing reusable water into drinking water supplies in 2008 and expanded this supply source to 100 million gallons per day.
The use of a natural buffer after a mechanical buffer is called "indirect reuse ".
It is disturbing that a resolution by AMWA is "[t]
The federal government should fund much-needed research to review the possible adverse effects of indirect reuse on health and provide guidance on the treatment techniques needed to ensure human health and safety.
But Hawks said that "the next step in the evolutionary chain is shifting from indirect reuse of drinking water to direct reuse of drinking water", a purification system without natural buffering.
The applicability of the survival game will be tested away from the Canadian glaciers, and in the Wichita Falls and the great spring, two dusty Texas cities whose names are against the promise of water. —